There is considerable uncertainty regarding the risk estimates for low levels of radiation exposure as commonly experienced in diagnostic radiology procedures. This is because the risk is quite low compared to the natural risk of cancer. At low doses, the radiation-related excess risk, which is thought to be proportional to dose, tends to be dwarfed by statistical and other variation in the background risk level. To obtain adequate evidence for a statistically valid estimate of cancer risk from exposure to low doses of radiation would require studying millions of people for many years. There are some who question whether there is adequate evidence for a risk of cancer induction at low doses. Some scientists believe that low doses of radiation do not increase the risk of developing cancer at all, but this is a minority view.
In finance, risk is the chance that the return achieved on an investment will be different from that expected, and also takes into account the size of the difference. This includes the possibility of losing some or all of the original investment. In a view advocated by Damodaran, risk includes not only " downside risk " but also "upside risk" (returns that exceed expectations).  Some regard the standard deviation of the historical returns or average returns of a specific investment as providing some historical measure of risk; see modern portfolio theory. Financial risk may be market-dependent, determined by numerous market factors, or operational, resulting from fraudulent behaviour (. Bernard Madoff ).