Dexmethylphenidate has a 4–6 hour duration of effect (a long-acting formulation, Focalin XR, which spans 12 hours is also available and has been shown to be as effective as DL (dextro-, levo-) -TMP (threo-methylphenidate) XR (extended release) (Concerta, Ritalin LA), with flexible dosing and good tolerability.   ) It has also been demonstrated to reduce ADHD symptoms in both children  and adults.  d-MPH has a similar side-effect profile to MPH  and can be administered without regard to food intake. 
The long system of alternating double and single bonds common to all carotenoids allows them to absorb light in the visible range of the spectrum (10) . This feature has particular relevance to the eye, where lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin (derived from lutein) efficiently absorb blue light. Depending on the carotenoid pigment density at the center of the eye’s retina ( macula ), up to 90% of blue light can be absorbed by these pigments. Reducing the amount of short-wavelength light that reaches the critical visual structures of the eye may protect them from light-induced oxidative damage (19) . Because the only source of these plant pigments in the eye is diet, a number of observational and intervention studies have examined the potential of dietary and supplemental lutein and zeaxanthin to protect against age-related eye diseases (see Age-related macular degeneration and Cataracts ). Supplemental lutein, alone or with zeaxanthin, was found to improve contrast sensitivity and protect against visual fatigue in young and/or healthy individuals (20-23) . Lutein has also been suggested to improve visual function through stimulating neuronal signaling efficiency in the eye (24) .
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